This report outlines the key comparative learning points that were gained as a result of International Alert’s Monitoring the Implementation of Small Arms Controls (MISAC) project. The project examined the process of implementation of regional and international SALW control measures in Eurasia, Latin America and West Africa. The reports and research upon which this report is based are contained in the attached CD Rom.
This report examines the lessons learned from the three year Monitoring the Implementation of Small Arms Controls (MISAC) project which addressed the barriers to the implementation of international controls on small arms such as the 2001 Programme of Action and the UN Firearms Protocol as well as regional control measures such as the EU Code of Conduct, the OSCE Small Arms Document the OAS Convention and the ECOWAS Moratorium. It assesses the key barriers to implementation as well as drawing lessons learned from those countries and regions which have implemented these controls. It concentrates on the lessons learned from three regions, Eurasia, West Africa and Latin America.
The adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security in October 2000 was the first formal and legal document from the Security Council that requires parties to a conflict and the international community to respect women’s rights and to support their participation at all stages in peace negotiations, conflict prevention and post conflict reconstruction Five years after this adoption, it is timely to question what implementation mechanisms have been created.
This panel discussion aimed to link the UN Security Council Resolution 1325 implementation five years on to the European focus on the implementation of 1325 and the related European Parliament resolution on the participation of women in peaceful conflict resolution.
The first Review Conference for the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat, and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All its Aspects is due to take place in July 2006. This is a major international event. It provides the first formal international opportunity to review and strengthen the UN Programme of Action (PoA) since it was agreed in July 2001. This is important. Trafficking, proliferation and misuse of small arms and light weapons (SALW) contributed to massive suffering and insecurity across the world each year.
The first Review Conference for the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat, and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All its Aspects took place in July 2006. This Report identifies and examines key priorities for the 2006 Review Conference for the PoA. It particularly focuses on identifying realistic and potentially negotiable objectives for the Conference.
The UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons In All Its Aspects (PoA) was agreed in July 2001. As the key international agreement on the illicit trade in, and misuse of, small arms and light weapons (SALW), the PoA is a vital instrument for addressing the urgent problems relating to SALW which underlie thousands of deaths each week, hinder development, undermine human rights and restrict good government across the world.
This report by Biting the Bullet (International Alert, Saferworld and University of Bradford) aims to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date review and analysis of progress towards implementation of the UN Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons In All Its Aspects (PoA) and of the consequent issues and priorities for the 2006 Review Conference.
Across the Great Lakes region, efforts are underway to lay the foundations for peaceful, stable and ultimately prosperous development. The challenges are enormous. Economies are in tatters, human suffering remains widespread, and poor or weak governance continues to undermine the process of development. In this regional context, and even right across central and southern Africa, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is pivotal.
Produced as part of the EU-funded Conflict Prevention Partnership, this paper analyses the context in which the European Union uses its external relations instruments to address security issues, promote legitimate and effective governance, and support economic recovery and regional integration, in the DRC. Consultations in the region and in the EU, as well as meetings held in Kinshasa in September 2006 with local officials, civil society and international diplomats have been used to develop recommendations and suggest possible avenues under each theme.
This report is the product of field research and subsequent analysis carried out between July 2004 and July 2005 by a team of researchers from Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia as well as Nagorny Karabakh, Abkhazia and South Ossetia across the South Caucasus, facilitated by International Alert. Based on a series of one-to-one interviews and focus groups with a wide range of stakeholders, it examines the connections between corruption and frozen conflicts in the South Caucasus region, exploring corruption on all sides. It is the first systematic study of corruption from the perspective of conflict analysis and the first to include the unrecognised entities of the region.
The problems faced by countries emerging from years of violent conflict are enormous, highly complex and intricately interconnected. Amongst the greatest challenges are the presence of large numbers of ex-combatants and the ongoing violence perpetrated by members of still-active rebel groups. These ex-combatants will ultimately need to be demobilised and reintegrated into civilian life or perhaps into newly constituted security services.
This report looks at the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of ex-combatants. It analyses the process and the role of the European Union, and makes recommendations on future EU involvement.
This collection of papers by researchers from Georgia and Abkhazia offers an analysis of international engagement in the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict resolution process since the early 90s, with a specific focus on post-August 2008 and the departure of the UN Observer Mission in 2009. Papers assess the impact of non-governmental peacebuilding initiatives, the effectiveness of the ‘Geneva discussions’ co-facilitated by the UN, EU and OSCE, and explore prospects for Abkhaz engagement with the international community. Together, the papers make a powerful argument for the de-isolation of Abkhazia and for continued direct and impartial engagement by both governmental and non-governmental organisations.
This report analyses conflict potential in Central Asia, from which it derives a strategy for peacebuilding in the region. Despite widely expressed fears, and with the important exception of the war in Tajikistan in the 1990s, until recently Central Asia had remained relatively peaceful since gaining independence in 1991. However, issues that could lead to conflict have not disappeared and new challenges have emerged that are rooted in the way the Central Asian states and the region have developed politically since independence.
Although Central Asia has remained relatively peaceful in the years since the break-up of the Soviet Union, there is still a considerable potential for conflict in the region. The Strategic Framework for Peacebuilding provides an in-depth analysis of conflict potential in Central Asia, from which it derives a peacebuilding strategy. The report focuses its attention on three states: Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. The regional context (Afghanistan) and the influence and interest of major powers (USA, Russia, China) in the region are also taken into account, as are common regional factors like strict border regimes cutting through communities, the complex ethnic situation in the Ferghana valley, the drug trade and the threat of islamism. The headline conclusion is that the central threat to stability lies not, as has long been thought, in ethnic rivalries or competition over resources, but rather in the relationship between the citizens and the state.
Set up during 2006 with peacebuilding as its sole objective, the UN Peacebuilding Commission has the potential to use its intergovernmental voice to focus attention on the factors that could drive a renewal of conflict. In this light, Alert submitted recommendations in late 2006 on how the PBC could most effectively orientate its short and long-term support to the process of improving security and sustaining peace, for men and women, in Burundi. More widely, this publication also looks at the main challenges for the PBC and how it should focus its activities. The recommendations aim also to draw the PBC’s attention to the “where” and “how” of its engagement. This is because the way it engages with national stakeholders will be a significant determinant of progress towards peace.
It has been six years since the unanimous adoption of Security Council resolution 1325 (SCR 1325) and, within the last year, the United Nations has established the Peacebuilding Commission (PBC)—a body intended to advise and propose integrated peacebuilding, development and reconstruction strategies for countries emerging from violent conflict.
The recently established United Nations Peacebuilding Commission (PBC) is a body intended to advise and propose integrated peacebuilding, development and reconstruction strategies for countries emerging from violent conflict. This SCR 1325 6 Years On Report examines the recent establishment of the Peacebuilding Commission, its structure, mandate and obligation to implement SCR 1325 in the achievement of durable peace and development.
This publication is one of the chapters of the book 'Human Security and Business' (Ruffer & Rub, 2008) which includes the papers highlighting important considerations concerning business and human rights. This publication points out the interconnectedness of severe human rights abuses in violent conflict with certain corporate practices, drawing on examples from Africa, Asia and Latin America, and shows that voluntary initiatives alone are not enough to ensure that companies, particularly in the extractive sector, act as per the law or best practices. While human rights impact assessments and conflict risk assessments are not sufficient, they are necessary in guiding corporate practices, and he provides examples from Alert's work in Colombia, in implementing Alert's 'Conflict Sensitive Business Practices: Guidance for the Extractive Sector (CSBP)' with respect to two projects in Colombia.
The European Union’s declarations of its commitment to conflict prevention have been welcomed because development and poverty reduction are unsustainable in the face of ongoing or renewed violent conflict.A comprehensive prevention approach and emphasis on tackling root causes of conflict are vital not only for improving the lives and livelihoods of directly affected populations, but also because instability and war can often spill across regions. They can have global ramifications on security and prosperity.
New strategy papers for the EU's engagement with developing countries will soon be agreed. The activities under them will have fundamental impacts on the contexts in which they will be applied, and many of these are prone to, or affected by, violent conflict, or experience some kind of societal or state fragility. Recognising the importance of the strategy papers, and the programming which will flow from them, International Alert, Saferworld and the European Peaceubilding Liaison Office, have come together to produce this briefing paper, providing analysis and advice for decision-making in Brussels and in the field.
This report is based on a discussion held in conjunction with GAPS and the High Commission for Canada on involving men in the implementation of Security Council Resolution 1325. It focuses on how and why SCR 1325 is relevant to men, as well as broader efforts to build sustainable peace. It explores strategies to increase their engagement with work around SCR 1325 at the UK and international levels.
This report is based on a GAPS event hosted by the Canadian High Commission on Tuesday, March 13th 2007 at Canada House, London.
International Alert (hereafter Alert) and Friends for Peace (FFP) began focusing on community security in mid-2006 in an effort to understand and address community security as a conflict prevention measure in support of sustainable conditions for peace and development.
Friends for Peace and International Alert undertook research in Morang, Makawanpur, Kailali and Jumla to assess the existing community security situation, people's perceptions towards it and prospects for the future. The research was based on individual and group interviews and wider community interactions and was led by the communities themselves.