<p>The European Security Strategy (ESS) commits the EU to using a wide range of instruments in order to prevent violent conflict. Its comprehensive nature is one of its strengths, however, greater analysis of how the EU’s “hard” and “soft” instruments will be applied during the implementation of the Strategy is needed. There is the risk that Member States will pay increasing attention to developing military aspects of the Common Foreign and Security Policy, rather than civilian, and preventive responses, without which, military engagement is counter-productive.</p><p> </p>
<p>This report documents the processes and outcomes of a needs assessment carried out with women in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria between the 12th and 20th of July 2002. The Niger Delta region has been subject to a three-pronged conflict between communities, oil companies and the Nigerian government, as well as facing conflict within communities.
This overview is designed to provide an insight into the history of our work in West Africa, particularly since the inception of the West Africa Programme in 1998.
<p>Over the last ten years the states in the region have had different capacities and different motivations to deal with the SALW issues, and understandably have made different levels of progress in addressing them. As post-Soviet transition states have stabilised, their ability to enforce their international obligations with relation to the export of SALW has improved. The restructuring processes in the defence industries of these states as a result of the end of the Cold War have meant that the number of weapons being produced in this area has reduced.
<p>The goal of this policy briefing is to provide a focused look at the challenges and obstacles to ensuring gender justice and accountability in the context of international peace support operations1 (PSOs) and to provide recommendations for UN and regional peacekeeping bodies (AU, ECOWAS, EU, NATO, OSCE) officials, responsible for peacekeeping in terms of setting policy standards and practice guidelines, as well as those directly involved as military or civilian peacekeepers. It approaches the issue of gender justice (see definition in section (iv)) in PSOs from three angles:</p>
The aim of this document is to highlight practical steps that the EU could take to better link the progress being made with its developing European Security and Defence (ESDP) operations and crisis management with longer-term conflict prevention.
This briefing argues that the institutional and legal response by the international community to the mercenary problem as it is manifested today is inadequate and urgently needs to be addressed. In recent years mercenary activity has changed radically to take on new and complex forms which fall outside the existing institutional and legal frameworks for mercenaries.
This paper has been written by Saferworld, International Alert and the International Development Research Centre for the OECD Task Force for Conflict, Peace and Development Co-operation and the CPR Network. It draws on the findings of these organisations’ research, policy dialogue and field work on approaches to peace and conflict-sensitive development, and has been informed by a Consultative Meeting held in Ottawa in November 2000. This Meeting was attended by government, academic and civil society experts from around the world.
This briefing, the second in the Biting the Bullet series, reviews some of the current regional efforts on small arms and light weapons. It identifies common approaches that have been used in different regions to counter the proliferation and misuse of small arms and light weapons, these include: law enforcement and crime control; supplier restraint and transparency; national legislation and regulation of arms; and arms reduction and control. The briefing analyses initiatives using these approaches that are moving forward in West Africa, Eastern and Southern Africa, the European Union (EU), and the development of cooperation between EU Member States and other countries and regional organizations, including Cambodia and the Southern African Development Community.
In it's aim to inform the Plan of Action (PoA) of the UN 2001 conference on Illicit Trade, this briefing from the Biting the Bullet series claims that the conference should aim to achieve agreement on a number of specific commitments, relating to: conducting regular reviews of national small arms holdings; identifying and disposing of surplus arms; adopting a norm for the destruction of surplus small arms; promoting transparency and awareness of surplus arms destruction processes; acting with great restraint in authorising transfers of surplus small arms; requiring responsible disposal of small arms that are rendered surplus by transfers; ensuring destruction of all confiscated, collected or inadequately marked small arms; ensuring responsible disposal of surplus parts and components and ammunition; requesting early assistance where necessary for implementation of commitments; and providing assistance in response to such requests.
This report focusses on the need for the UN 2001 Conference develop its own programme of action, while also seeking to build on the international norms and standards which have been developed during the course of the Protocol negotiations. It holds that the Conference thus will be an important opportunity to add another element to the comprehensive framework necessary for effective global action to combat the proliferation and misuse of small arms and light weapons.
This paper asseses the present and potential role of private military and security companies in peacekeeping operations. After examining the arguments for their use and current examples for their involvement in peacekeeping activites, it highlights a variety of concerns accociated with their use, which suggest they are unlikely to receive greater acceptance by policy makers in the near future.
This paper reviews the latest conceptual and practical approaches to integrating a conflict prevention and peace-building perspective into development co-operation. It identifies good practice and lessons learned, necessary for the development of a PCIA tool.
The following report reveals the desperate state of Burundi’s Education system. It has been produced primarily to inform the international donor community.
Written in three sections by three different authors. this report concludes with a brief discussion of why these weapons-specific indicators have not been better utilized and some specific recommendations as to how these important indicators can become a vital part of the early warning process, in theory and in practice.Weapons-specific early warning discussed in this report could serve as the basis for practicalwork in those areas where early warning is critical. There are major obstacles to inducing NGOs and other personnel in the field to begin making better use of weapons-specificinformation. The authors of this report are involved with the global effort underway to deal with this issue.
This report assesses and provides a framework for understanding both the positive and negative roles that business can play in situations of conflict.
This paper was originally presented at the Global Development Network Conference in Bonn, 5-8 December 1999 discussing approaches in conflict impact assessment and early warning. Given the background that most violent conflicts nowadays are taking place in developing countries, the paper highlights the isssues of socially sustainable development, negative effects of aid and reactive approach to conflict.
This paper presents the findings of research into Shell’s approach to corporate social responsibility activities at both headquarter level and in Angola as a case study of stakeholder perspectives on existing corporate practice and opportunities in supporting peace.
This report seeks to document governmental and civil society activity in Ghana, Nigeria and Senegal with regard to the control of SALW. The case studies provide an overview of the main sources of SALW proliferation.