South Sudan emerged as an independent nation in 2011 after decades of war. One year later, Alert presents the findings of a wide-ranging Peace and Conflict Assessment. Commissioned by Pact and funded by the Department for International Development, the assessment looks beyond the immediate problems faced by South Sudanese, and proposes a long-term approach to building peace. This means for example working on conflict prevention instead of just conflict resolution, designing economic development strategies which promote peace, giving greater priority to reconciliation, tackling impunity, and promoting a positive and peaceful national identity for the new country born out of war. Engaging women and young people is critical.