In both low and middle income countries, well established arguments and solid evidence confirm that there is no real development without peace and only the peace of the graveyard without development. These conclusions have shifted the fulcrum of discussion about development over the past several years. But they have not yet added up to telling anybody how to do it.
In the context of transition from conflict to peace in Nepal, and the associated urgent need for the state to be seen to enforce rule of law and ensure access to justice for all, this report documents research which examines the relationship between state and non-state justice mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to begin to identify opportunities for strengthening coordination between state and non-state justice providers, with the aim of improving access to justice. Its intended audience is state security and justice providers, and those involved in supporting non-state justice mechanisms such as paralegal committees and community mediation programmes.
This case study discusses rehabilitation efforts in Nepal following the Comprehensive Peace Accord of 2006 and geared towards those ex-combatants who were either verified minors or late recruits (VMLRs). It examines the outcomes of the process and highlights the role that private sector actors can play in the socio-economic reintegration of ex-combatants. The study critically explores the challenges that VMLRs encountered when enrolling in the rehabilitation programme, the vocational training options they were presented with, as well as the inhibiting factors which impacted on their ability to find gainful employment and attain sustainable livelihoods upon graduation. It highlights the tensions between ex-combatants’ immediate versus long-term interests, the need to align training modules with local market realities, and the barriers that misinformation and suspicion within the business community can pose to reintegration processes.
This report is part of the case study series, Enhancing socio-economic opportunities for ex-combatants in post-conflict environments.
This report summarises the findings of a series of case studies which explore the socio-economic aspects of reintegration programmes for ex-combatants in a number of conflict-affected countries where International Alert works: Nepal, Liberia and Uganda. The aim of the series is to stimulate discussions at the local, national and international level about the role that private sector actors can play in the effective reintegration of ex-combatants, and to strengthen practice by developing recommendations for future socio-economic reintegration programmes.
This report focuses on how theories of change can improve the effectiveness of peacebuilding interventions. A review of 19 peacebuilding projects in three conflict-affected countries found that the process of articulating and reviewing theories of change adds rigour and transparency, clarifies project logic, highlights assumptions that need to be tested, and helps identify appropriate participants and partners. However, the approach has limitations, including the difficulty of gathering theory-validating evidence.
This series of three country “Insights” identifies peacebuilding priorities in Burundi, Liberia and Nepal, and discusses the response of the international institutions operating there. The focus institutions are primarily the World Bank and the UN. The insights provide a brief snapshot and analysis of each country’s particular peacebuilding needs, as well as the dynamics that either facilitate or hinder institutional ability to address these needs. Findings inform a synthesis report entitled ‘Peacebuilding, the World Bank and the United Nations: Debates and Practice in Burundi, Liberia and Nepal’, the summary of which is available here. This work is part of Alert’s International Institutions Programme which seeks through research and engagement to strengthen the peacebuilding impacts of international institutions in fragile and conflict-affected countries.
Why is development progress difficult in fragile and conflict-affected countries? International Alert conducted a series of studies in Burundi, Liberia and Nepal to explore this question in terms of how international institutions channel aid to support peace and development progress. The studies focused on two multilaterals: the World Bank and the United Nations. From the country studies, some common institutional challenges and opportunities emerged: governance and political legitimacy; responsiveness to fast-changing contexts; managing organisational mandates; harnessing comparative advantage between institutions; and translating policy commitments into practice. This summary of research findings and analysis includes a series of emerging recommendations. Rather than providing answers, this paper uses evidence to stimulate new conversation, thinking and practice.
This short briefing paper forms part of International Alert Nepal’s working paper series ‘Equitable economic recovery for peace’ (see below). It highlights key security concerns for the Nepali private sector and explores the role business can play in contributing to and mitigating insecurity. It identifies entry points from which various stakeholders, including the private sector, government, civil society and the international community, may seek to encourage improved public security in the country.
As elsewhere, the business community in post-peace agreement Nepal is being held up as the engine of growth and recovery from conflict and poverty. Much hinges on business' ability and willingness to deliver on these expectations, not only in terms of stimulating growth, but also for promoting social equity and cohesion. For policy and programming to be effective, policymakers need to be mindful of and reflect micro- and macro-level realities of the business environment,
Following the 10-year conflict between the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) and the government of Nepal, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) and the Constituent Assembly (CA) elections signalled the start of the peace and recovery process. Security provision and enabling access to justice are generally seen as core functions of the state, as well as fundamental building blocks for good governance, stability and socioeconomic development.
Sexual and gender-based violence is one of five key security challenges currently facing Nepal. Left untackled, such violence, plus the increase in armed groups; proliferation of small arms and light weapons; rises in crime and political strikes pose a serious risk to the peace process. This paper provides insight into how to strengthen security and justice responses to the principle risk for women in post-conflict Nepal, sexual and gender-based violence. Three broad recommendations are proposed to international donors, particularly the EU.
This paper is a collection of reflections from a field visit to three districts in the middle hills and Terai belt of eastern Nepal (Sunsari, Dhankuta and Morang) which set out to explore the various dimensions of the resilience of climate-affected communities. By sharing the perceptions and insights of community members from these districts, this paper aims to shed light on the complexities of these particular local contexts and flag some of the specific challenges of responding to climate change in fragile and conflict-affected contexts such as Nepal.
These ‘snapshot’ briefings are part of a longer-term initiative by International Alert to help address the current gaps in knowledge and understanding between those actors at the district level and those in Kathmandu. Each briefing aims to outline current security and justice needs and challenges in a particular district, and advance constructive recommendations for ways in which national and international actors could address these challenges. The briefings are based on research undertaken as part of Alert’s work for the Initiative for Peacebuilding project. This snapshot focuses on Bara, a district in the central Terai where the activities of armed groups are contributing to feelings of insecurity.
These ‘snapshot’ briefings are part of a longer-term initiative by International Alert to help address the current gaps in knowledge and understanding between those actors at the district level and those in Kathmandu. Each briefing aims to outline current security and justice needs and challenges in a particular district, and advance constructive recommendations for ways in which national and international actors could address these challenges. The briefings are based on research undertaken as part of Alert’s work for the Initiative for Peacebuilding project.
This snapshot focuses on Dang, a district in the western Terai where political party youth wings are increasingly blamed for exacerbating insecurity.