This year Africa celebrates 50 years of collective action: first through the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) and more recently the African Union (AU). This is also a critical juncture in African history: the post-colonial period is over and the African Renaissance is underway; economic growth has been steady for a decade; and the number of wars and coups d’état has declined. However, Africans still face many challenges. This paper examines how the AU can enhance its contribution to sustainable peace. This is part of our Peace Focus series.