For more than a decade, research has stressed the importance of the economic dimension of conflict, and of the economic interests of belligerents. Competition among political, military and business actors for the control of mineral resources in the east of the country is being increasingly recognised as a pivotal factor in assessing the causes of instability in the Democratic Republic of Congo. This report is based on a thorough review of all the main literature on the subject since the year 2000. It describes and assesses the different categories of actors and the processes, chains and linkages that are involved in mining and trading of minerals in the Kivu provinces and in the territory of Ituri. It also reveals some of the main gaps in the information on the issue that is needed to develop and refine more effective peace-building strategies by national and international interveners.
Our Programming Framework provides International Alert peace practitioners with some guidance in the complex and difficult task of building peace. It also offers those we work with and are accountable to greater clarity about what we do and why we do it. Most importantly, it is designed to enable peacebuilders to be better able to identify and measure the impact of their actions, so that they can be more effective in what they do.
International Alert is seeking to build on previous initiatives to inform and advance EU thinking on the reintegration of ex-combatants into post-conflict societies and economies. This is the second of two briefing papers produced as part of a year-long initiative aimed at reinvigorating the debate on reintegration. Based on research in Burundi, Liberia and Nepal, it discusses why the lessons of past reintegration programmes are not being learned and what implications this has for future EU disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) programming. It was used in draft form to inform discussions at an Alert Roundtable held in Brussels in November 2009.
This report explores the complexities of responding to climate change in fragile and conflict affected contexts. It highlights the interaction between the impact of climate change and the social and political realities in which people live and stresses that it is this that will determine their capacity to adapt. To be effective, the goal of policy responses must be to address the political dimension of adapting to climate change, and the underlying causes of vulnerability where the state is unable to carry out its core functions. The report sets out five policy objectives and some key observations on getting the institutional structures right in order to achieve this goal. The reports findings urge policy makers to look beyond technical fixes and to address the interlinked political, social and institutional constraints to effective responses.
In this challenge paper the members of the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council propose a new vulnerability and protection business model for humanitarian assistance. This new model should have six requirements: A comprehensive risk framework; A reworked balance of spending between response, prevention and recovery; A big investment in national and local capacity; Fuller engagement of the private sector; Linking of the humanitarian to broader social and economic development issues; and Regional and international readiness to address cross-border humanitarian issues.
A major challenge to improving human security and establishing sustainable peace in countries emerging from violent conflict is how to reintegrate ex-combatants into a peacetime society and economy. This is the first of two briefing papers produced as part of a year-long initiative aimed at reinvigorating the debate on reintegration. It aims to provide a platform for linking a broader range of actors who could be involved in ensuring the related aspects of the disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) concept move beyond policy to practice, and to explore what role the EU can play in reintegration. It discusses why socio-economic reintegration is important, what challenges it faces, what approaches are being pursued, and what factors constrain successful implementation. It was used in draft form to inform discussions at an Alert Roundtable held in Brussels in September 2009.
Governance of Natural Resources in Sao Tome and Principe: A Case Study on Oversight and Transparency of Oil Revenues
O presente estudo de caso, encomendado pela International Alert, examina a governação dos
recursos naturais em São Tomé e Príncipe, concentrando-se nos mecanismos ou estruturas
de gestão, fiscalização e publicidade da informação (transparência) criados para monitorizar
as receitas do petróleo desde 2007.
Depuis plus d'une décennie, les recherches ont souligné l'importance de la dimension économique du conflit et des intérêts économiques des belligérants. La concurrence entre les acteurs politiques, militaires et commerciaux pour le contrôle des ressources minérales dans l'est du pays est de plus en plus reconnue comme un facteur clé dans les causes d'instabilité en République démocratique du Congo. Ce rapport est basé sur un examen approfondi des principaux documents écrits sur le sujet depuis l'an 2000. Il décrit et évalue les différentes catégories d'acteurs, de processus, les chaînes et les liens impliqués dans le secteur minier et le commerce des minerais dans les provinces du Kivu et dans le territoire de l'Ituri. Il révèle également certaines lacunes principales d'informations sur la question, nécessaires aux intervenants nationaux et internationaux pour développer et affiner des stratégies d'édification de la paix plus efficaces.
This report examines the potential of Uganda’s newly discovered oil reserves and recommends increased transparency and principled leadership to promote broad economic opportunities of oil discovery for peace and development in Uganda.
This discovery of oil, taking place within a context of a variety of tensions that exist on both sides of the DRC-Uganda border, represents a potential risk of conflict and presents a peacebuilding challenge for local communities, the government, private sector investors, donors and civil society. With a proactive approach that takes into account conflict risks, the dual dividend of peace and development can be realised through the equitable and transparent exploitation of this resource.
This paper presents the separate analyses of both Georgian and Abkhaz civil society experts on the need for security guarantees, the reasons why the sides have been unable to agree on them as well as barriers and opportunities for future agreements. In itself, the document reflects the achievement of Alert’s long-term engagement as a facilitator of dialogue between Georgian and Abkhaz civil society leaders. It reflects an advance in the dialogue process while contributing to the debate around security guarantees. This publication is an attempt to present a new analytical framework for dialogue to stimulate communication and debate across the conflict divide. It should be of equal interest to Georgian and Abkhaz societies, hopefully bringing the perspective of the other side into internal debates, while helping international actors with an interest in peaceful resolution of the conflict to understand Georgian and Abkhaz perspectives better.
В данном отчете представлен анализ мнений грузинских и абхазских общественных экспертов о необходимости создания гарантий безопасности, причин, по которым стороны не смогли достичь соглашения по этому поводу, а также возможности будущих соглашений. Как таковой, документ отражает достижения долговременного участия организации "Интернэшнл Алерт" (International Alert) в развитии диалога между лидерами грузинского и абхазского гражданского общества. Он освещает продвижение в процессе диалога, в то же время представляя свой вклад в дискуссию о гарантиях безопасности. Эта публикация - попытка представить новые рамки анализа диалога в целях стимулировать общение и обсуждение через границы конфликта. Как для грузинского, так и для абхазского общества представляет интерес вовлечение другой стороны во внутреннюю дискуссию, что также помогло бы международным игрокам, имеющим интересы в мирном разрешении конфлита, понять грузинскую и абхазскую стороны лучше.
This resource pack contains five sections which lead the reader through a three-step cycle of understanding and analysing, planning and doing, and checking and improving Corporate Responsibility (CR) activities.
It primarily addresses Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), and is based on experience from Sri Lanka. The purpose of this resource pack is to introduce Sri Lankan SMEs to the concepts and approaches of CR. It presents a coherent framework that will help SMEs identify ways of adapting CR to their own context and purposes.
• Section 1 : Introduction
• Section 2 : Understanding Stakeholders and Context
• Section 3 : Planning and Implementing a CR-Centred Business Model
• Section 4 : Checking and Improving CR Strategy and Activities, and Communicating Success
• Section 5 : Digging Deeper: Case Studies and Additional Resources
This paper argues that at the core of the problem of persistent violence in Mindanao is the exclusionary political economy that is developed and sustained through a complex system of contest and violence. “Rebellion-related” violence relating to the vertical armed challenges against the infrastructure of the state combines with “inter- or intra-clan and group violence” relating to horizontal armed challenges between and among families, clans, and tribes. These two types of conflict interact in ways that are poorly understood and which sustain conditions serving the interests of those with access to economic and political power at the expense of the majority of those in Mindanao. The publication informs a dialogue process now underway in Mindanao exploring the key issues raised through the research.
This guide provides information and advice primarily for investors that are new to northern Uganda, to assist them in making the right approach to ensure success, maximising both their profit and their contribution to peace and development in the troubled region. It identifies key steps investors can take to ensure their business contributes to a peace economy and avoids aggravating tensions.
The ‘Snapshot’ briefings are part of a longer-term initiative by International Alert to help address the current gaps in knowledge and understanding between those actors at the district level and those in Kathmandu. Each briefing aims to outline current security and justice needs and challenges in a particular district, and advance constructive recommendations for ways in which national and international actors could address these challenges. The briefings are based on research undertaken as part of Alert’s work for the Initiative for Peacebulding project. Snapshot 1.1 focuses on Kailali a rural Terai district where ethnic tensions threaten to escalate.
The ‘Snapshot’ briefings are part of a longer-term initiative by International Alert to help address the current gaps in knowledge and understanding between those actors at the district level and those in Kathmandu. Each briefing aims to outline current security and justice needs and challenges in a particular district, and advance constructive recommendations for ways in which national and international actors could address these challenges. The briefings are based on research undertaken as part of Alert’s work for the Initiative for Peacebulding project. Snapshot 1.2 focuses on Morang an industrial hub hit hard by unrest in the eastern Terai region.
The ‘Snapshot’ briefings are part of a longer-term initiative by International Alert to help address the current gaps in knowledge and understanding between those actors at the district level and those in Kathmandu. Each briefing aims to outline current security and justice needs and challenges in a particular district, and advance constructive recommendations for ways in which national and international actors could address these challenges. The briefings are based on research undertaken as part of Alert’s work for the Initiative for Peacebuilding project. Snapshot 1.3 focuses on Jumla a remote hill district where the vast majority of the population lacks access to formal security and justice mechanisms.